August 29th, 2015

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берберы - генетическая история Сев.Африки

Nevertheless, individual Berber communities display a considerably high mtDNA heterogeneity among them. The Berbers of Jerba Island, located in South Eastern Tunisia, display an 87 percent Eurasian contribution with no U6 haplotypes,[16] while the Kesra of Tunisia, for example, display a much higher proportion of typical sub-Saharan mtDNA haplotypes (49 percent),[17] as compared to the Zriba (8 percent). According to the article, "The North African patchy mtDNA landscape has no parallel in other regions of the world and increasing the number of sampled populations has not been accompanied by any substantial increase in our understanding of its phylogeography. Available data up to now rely on sampling small, scattered populations, although they are carefully characterized in terms of their ethnic, linguistic, and historical backgrounds. It is therefore doubtful that this picture truly represents the complex historical demography of the region rather than being just the result of the type of samplings performed so far."

Additionally, recent studies have discovered a close mitochondrial link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia which confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of Southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated Northern Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum and reveals a direct maternal link between those European hunter-gatherer populations and the Berbers.[17][18] With regard to Mozabite Berbers, one-third of Mozabite Berber mtDNAs have a Near Eastern ancestry, probably having arrived in North Africa ∼50,000 years ago, and one-eighth have an origin in sub-Saharan Africa. Europe appears to be the source of many of the remaining sequences, with the rest having arisen either in Europe or in the Near East."[19]

According to the most recent and thorough study about Berber mtDNA from Coudray et al. 2008 that analysed 614 individuals from 10 different regions (Morocco (Asni, Bouhria, Figuig, Souss), Algeria (Mozabites), Tunisia (Chenini-Douiret, Sened, Matmata, Jerba) and Egypt (Siwa))[20] the results may be summarized as follows :

  • Total Eurasian lineages (H, HV, R0, J, T, U (without U6), K, N1, N2, X) : 50-80 percent

  • Total sub-Saharan lineages (L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5) : 20-40 percent

  • Total North African lineages (U6, M1) : 10-30 percent

The Berber mitochondrial pool is characterized by an overall high frequency of Western Eurasian haplogroups, a somehow lower frequency of sub-Saharan L lineages, and a significant (but differential) presence of North African haplogroups U6 and M1.

Admixture analysis[edit]

Recent genetic analysis of North African populations have found that, despite the complex admixture genetic background, there is an autochthonous genomic component which is likely derived from “back-to-Africa” gene flow older than 12,000 years ago (ya) (i.e., prior to the Neolithic migrations). This local population substratum seems to represent a genetic discontinuity with the earliest modern human settlers of North Africa (those with the Aterian industry) given the estimated ancestry is younger than 40,000 years ago. North Morocco, Libya and Egypt carry high proportions of European and Near Eastern ancestral components, whereas Tunisian Berbers and Saharawi are those populations with highest autochthonous North African component.[25]

Average ancestry proportions in North African populations estimated by ADMIXTURE for k = 4 different ancestries (October 2012)

Population N Maghreb Europe Near East Sub-Saharan Africa
Tunisia (Berbers) 18 93% 4% 2% 1%
Saharawi 18 55% 17% 10% 18%
Morocco North 18 44% 31% 14% 11%
Morocco South 16 44% 13% 10% 33%
Algeria 19 39% 27% 16% 18%
Libya 17 31% 28% 25% 16%
Egypt 19 19% 37% 30% 14%

есть подозрение что амазихи - это потомки северо-африканской ветви фракийцев-мушек, во времена катастрофы Бронзового века ("народы моря") 14-12 вв до н.э. ушедших из Центр.Европы через Балканы частью на восток, в Малую Азию (где дали начало фригийцам) и далее на Армянское нагорье (положив начало армянам), частью на запад в Африку, став там элитной светлой суперстратой
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Сарматы, Сарматия и Северное Причерноморье